Tuesday, 12 March 2013

UNIX Commands Comparison Sheet

SysinfoDisplay system information i.e cpu, memory, etc
Memory and SwapInformation regarding the physical memory and swap area
Disks, Filesystems and DevicesDisplaying disk information, filesystems
NetworkingDisplay and configuring network parameters
Crash DumpConfigure, display and use the crash dump utiltities
Performance Monitoring and DiagnosticsList, Monitor and trace processes
Kernel Modules and ParametersDisplaying, modifying and tuning kernel parameters
ServicesDisplay, start and stop services
Patching / PackagesInstalling and removing patches and software packages
AccountsSetting up and removing user accounts
NFSInformation on NFS i.e starting, stopping, etc
NTPNetwork Time Protocol
Log FilesLocation to common log files
SecuritySecurity information
MiscOther stuff i.e shutdown, timezone, run level, etc

sysinfo
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP-UX
AIX
 
Server Release infocat /etc/releasecat /etc/enterprise-release
cat /etc/redhat-release

lsb_release -acat /proc/version
cat /etc/lsb-release

lsb_release -a
/stand/kernrel
oslevel -r
Server Release info
Server type/usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -vdmidecodedmidecodemodel
uname -a
prtconf | grep -i 'System Model'Server type
Hardware Infoprtdiag -v
prtpicl -v [-c <class>]
prtconf -D
lspci
lsusb
lshal
Note: hal = hardware abstraction layer
lspci
lsusb
lshal
ioscan
ioscan -fun [disk|tape|lan]
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info
lscfg -v
lscfg -l ent0
lscfg -vl fcs0 (find the WWN of HBA adapter)
lsdev
lsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0
lsslot -c [pci|phb|port]
lsslot -c pci -l ent0

lspath -l hdisk0
diag
Hardware Info
Operating Systemuname -auname -auname -auname -aoslevel [-r|-s]Operating System
Memory/usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v
prtconf | grep -i mem
cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om
cat /proc/slabinfo
cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om
cat /proc/slabinfo
dmesg | grep -i physical
/usr/sam/lbin/getmem
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info
prtconf -m
prtconf |grep -i memory
lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem
bootinfo -r 
Memory
CPU (type, number, etc)/usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v
## display,offline,online
psrinfo
psradm -f 0 (offline)
psradm -n 0 (online) 
cat /proc/cpuinfo (detailed)cat /proc/cpuinfo (detailed)/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
sam -> performance monitors -> system properties
cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info
prtconf |grep -i processorCPU (type, number, etc)
Disk Drivesformat
prtvtoc <device>
format -e (to convert EFI (zfs) to SMI)
Note:
EFI - Extensible Firmware Interface
SMI - Sun Microsystems Inc
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe -s <device>
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe <device>
ioscan -funC disklsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0 (specific controller)
lsdev -Cc disk -S [a|d|s] (available, defined, stopped)

lscfg -v -l hdisk0
Disk Drives
Kernel File and associated directories/kernel/genunix

/platform/sparc/kernel
/platform/i86pc/kernel
/kernel
/usr/kernel
/boot/initrd.?????.img
/boot/vmlinuz
/boot/initrd.img-?????-server
/boot/vmlinuz-????-server
/stand/vmunix/unix

/usr/lib/boot
/usr/lib/drivers

Note: /unix - symbolic link to kernel file i.e /usr/lib/boot/unix_64
Kernel File
Kernel 32 or 64isainfo -kv (solaris 9+)
isalist (sparc v9 will be listed first)
isainfo -b
uname -a
uname -m
getconf -a |grep -i 'long_bit'
uname -a
uname -m
getconf -a |grep -i 'long_bit'
getconf KERNEL_BITS ( version 11)
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest |grep -i 'os mode'

HPUX < version 11 all 32 bit

Note: determine if system supports 64 bit
getconf HW_CPU_SUPP_BITS
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest |grep -i 'hw capability'
prtconf -k
bootinfo -K
Kernel 32 or 64
Display FirmwareAt the OK prompt type bannerboot into the BIOS (normally F2 or F12)boot into the BIOS (normally F2 or F12)workstations:
reboot
enter PDC
type: IN (information menu)
type: FV (Firmware Version)
prtconf |grep -i firmware
lscfg -pv
invscout 
Display Firmware
Display IRQ, IO ports and DMAn/a/proc/interrupts
/proc/ioports
/proc/dma
/proc/interrupts
/proc/ioports
/proc/dma
n/aprtconfDisplay IRQ, IO ports and DMA
GUI admin tooladmintoollinuxconflinuxconfsamsmit
smitty
GUI admin tool

Memory and Swap
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Memory/usr/platform/`uname -i`/sbin/prtdiag -v
prtconf | grep -i mem
cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om
cat /proc/meminfo (detailed)
free -om
dmesg | grep -i physical
/usr/sam/lbin/getmem
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
cat /var/opt/ignite/local/manifest/manifest.info
prtconf -m
prtconf |grep -i memory
lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem
bootinfo -r
Memory
page size (memory)/usr/bin/pagesize/usr/bin/getconf -a| egrep -i 'pagesize|page_size'/usr/bin/getconf -a| egrep -i 'pagesize|page_size'dmesg |grep -i physicalpagesize
pagesize -a (display all supported pagesizes)
page size (memory)
display swapswap -l
swap -s
cat /proc/swaps (detailed)
swapon -s
cat /proc/swaps (detailed)
swapon -s
swapinfo (displayed in KB)
swapinfo -m (display in Mb)
swapinfo -tm (total / Mb)
lsps -a (detailed)
lsps -s
display swap
adding swapmkfile 5m /var/swapfile
swap -a /var/swapfile

update /etc/vfstab
device:
create partition with fdisk (type 82)
file(create 50MB swap file):
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swapfile bs=1024 count=50000

mkswap <device>|<file>
swapon <device>|<file>

update /etc/fstab
device:
create partition with fdisk (type 82)
file(create 50MB swap file):
dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swapfile bs=1024 count=50000

mkswap <device>|<file>
swapon <device>|<file>

update /etc/fstab
Create logical volume or filesystem

swapon <device> | -f <logical device>
swapon -p 3 <device> | -f <logical device>

update /etc/fstab

Note: -p = priority swap number . The nswapdevtunable system parameter controls the maximum number of swap devices.
mkps -a -s 4 -n <volume group>

# change the attributes
chps -a n paging00 (don't use after restart)

# change the logical volume attributes (name in this case)
chlv -n <new name> <old old> (chang page space name)

Note:

-a reconfigure paging space after restart
-s size of the page space (logical partitions)
-n activiates the paging space (use swapoff to deactivate)

also see /etc/swapspaces file
adding swap
removing swapupdate /etc/vfstab
swap -d
swapoff <device>|<file>

Remove device or file as normal
swapoff <device>|<file>

Remove device or file as normal
remove entry from /etc/fstab
reboot
swapoff /dev/paging00
rmps paging00

Note: paging space must be deactiviated before removing
removing swap
Disks, Filesystems and Devices
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Disk Drivesformat
prtvtoc <device>
format -e (to convert EFI (zfs) to SMI)
Note:
EFI - Extensible Firmware Interface
SMI - Sun Microsystems Inc
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe <device>
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
parted <device> print
partprobe <device>
ioscan -funC disklsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0 (specific controller)
lsdev -Cc disk -S [a|d|s] (available, defined,stopped)

lscfg -v -l hdisk0
Disk Drives
Disk serial Number, type, etcformat
iostat -En
luxadm inq <disk> (A5x00 disk arrays)
hdparm -i /dev/hda
hdparm -I /dev/hda (detailed)

hdparm -Tt /dev/hda (speed test)

sdparm -i /dev/sdb

cat /proc/ide/ide0/hda/model
cat /proc/scsi/scsi
hdparm -i /dev/hda
hdparm -I /dev/hda (detailed)

haparm -Tt /dev/hda (speed test)

sdparm -i /dev/sdb

cat /proc/ide/ide0/hda/model
cat /proc/scsi/scsi
diskinfo -v /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0 (detailed but no serial number)
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest (no serial number)
## Insure that the online diagnostic support tools have been installed
swlist -l bundle | grep 'Support Tools'
## Command-Line Support Tools Manager (cstm)
## The run cstm
cstm
cstm> map
cstm> sel dev 4       (select the disk of you choice)
cstm> info
cstm> il                  (obtain the serial number)
cstm> quit 
lscfg -vl hdisk0
lscfg -vl hdisk*
Disk serial Number, type, etc
Disk disk partitionsprtvtoc <device>

cat /etc/vfstab
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
cat /proc/partitions (very high level)
cat /etc/fstab
fdisk -l
sfdisk -l (advanced server)
cat /proc/partitions (very high level)
cat /etc/fstab
lvlnboot -v /dev/vg00
lifls -Clv <device>

# Display the LIF contents
lifcp /dev/dsk/c0t6d0:AUTO -

cat /etc/fstab
Note: Boot programs are stored in the boot area in Logical Interchange Format (LIF), which is similar to a file system. For a device to be bootable, the LIF volume on that device must contain at least the ISL
(the initial system loader) and HPUX (the HP-UX bootstrap utility) LIF files. ISL is like GRUB.
lsvg -l rootvg
lchangelv
cat /etc/filesystems
Disk disk partitions
List Raw Partitionsuse format to partition the disk then just use the slice as a raw partition, remember to use the character device## Old way
/etc/sysconfig/rawdevices
service rawdevices start
chkconfig rawdevices on
## New way, Edit below file
/etc/udev/rules.d/60-raw.rules
udevinfo -d or udevadm

## Display raw partitions
raw -qa
mknod /dev/rawctl c 162 0
mknod /dev/raw/raw0 c 162 1
mknod /dev/raw/raw1 c 162 2
ln -s /dev/rawctl /dev/raw/rawctl

## map raw devices to the disk
raw /dev/raw/raw1 /dev/sdb1

## display raw devices
raw -qa
Just create a new LVOL without a filesystem - that's it.Just create a new LVOL without a filesystem
# create a raw volume
mklv -y rawVolume vg01 10
List Raw Partitions
Filesystem commandsdf -k
df -h 
df -k
df -h
df -k
df -h
bdf
df [-egiklnvfb]
df -k
lsfs [<filesystem>]
lsfs -q <filesystem> (detailed) 
Filesystem commands
Filesystem (create|remove)newfs -v <raw device>

# Display how the filesystem was created
newfs -Nv <filesystem>
mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1newfs -F vxfs -o largefiles /dev/vg01/rlvol1

mkfs -F vxfs -o largefiles /dev/vg01/rlvol1

Note: mkfs and newfs are a pointer to /sbin/fs_wrapper 
crfs -v jfs2 -d data02lv -m /data02 -A yes

-v filesystem type
-d device or logical volume
-m mountpoint
-A mount after restart [yes|no]

rmfs -ri /data02

-r remove the mountpoint
-i display warning before removing
chfs -a size=+1G /var (grow by additional 1GB)
chfs -a size=1G /var (grow to 1GB in size)
Filesystem (create|remove|resize)
Tune Filesystemstunefs
fstyp -v <device> |grep -i minfree
tune2fs
tune2fs -l /dev/sda1
# change reserved blocks percentage to 1%
tune2fs -m 1 /dev/sda1
tune2fs
tune2fs -l /dev/sda1
# change reserved blocks percentage to 1%
tune2fs -m 1 /dev/sda1
tunefs -v <filesystem>
vxtunefs -v <filesystem>
fstyp -v <filesystem>

# Disk fragmentation
fsadm -F vxfs -E / (report)
fsadm -F vxfs -e / (defrag)
chfs

Note: you can perform the following
resize
freeze
change mountpoint
permissions
lots more..............................
Tune Filesystems
Force fsck



# Check to see filesystem needs checking
fstyp -v <filesystem> | grep fsclean
touch /forcefsck
shutdown -Fr now


tune2fs -l /dev/sdb<?> |grep -i 'filesystem state'
touch /forcefsck
shutdown -r now


tune2fs -l /dev/sdb<?> |grep -i 'filesystem state'

# edit /etc/default/rcS change below so
# you dont have to hang around
FSCKFIX=yes


# Look at the second line to see if a filesystem
# needs checking
tunefs -v <filesystem>
n/aForce fsck
backup filesystemufsdump|ufsrestore
tar
dd
cpio
dump/restore
tar
dd
cpio
dump/restore
tar
dd
cpio
fbackup/frecover
dump/restore
ftio
tar
dd
cpio
backup|restore
tar
dd
cpio
backup filesystem
Display the boot deviceeeprom |grep boot-device
prtconf -pv |grep bootpath
prtpicl -v|grep ':bootpath'
cat /boot/grub/grub.conf
cat /etc/lilo.conf
grub = grand unified boot loader
lilo = linux loader
cat /boot/grub/menu.lstsetbootbootinfo -b (display last boot device)
bootlist -m [normal|service] -o (display bootable devices)
Display the boot device
Setting the boot devicesetenv boot-device [<device>|<alias>]
eeprom boot-device [<device>|<alias>]
/boot/grub/grub.conf
/etc/lilo.conf
/boot/grub/menu.lstsetboot -p <primary path>
setboot -a <alternate path>

# autoboot sequnce
setboot -b [on|off]
bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1Setting the boot device
Creating boot device (MBR)installboot /usr/platform/`uname -i`/lib/fs/ufs/bootblk <raw-device>grub-install <raw-device>
lilo -v
grub-install <raw-device>mkboot -l <device>

Note: we are treating the disk as a LVM device
bosboot -a (uses default device)
bosboot -ad hdisk1
Creating boot device (MBR)
Format floppy drivefdformat -v -U
volcheck -v
newfs -v /vol/disk/aliases/floppy0
floppy --probe (use device obtained below )
floppy --createrc > /etc/fd0
floppy --format /dev/fd0
mkfs /dev/fd0
n/an/aformat -d /dev/rfd0
format -d /dev/fd0.18 (high format)
Format floppy drive
mount/unmount floppyvolrmmount -l floppy0
eject floppy
mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
umount /mnt/floppy
n/an/amount /dev/rfd0 /floppymount/unmount floppy
mount/unmount CDROMmount -F hsfs -o ro <device path> /cdrom/cdrom0
umount /cdrom/cdrom0

/etc/init.d/volmgr start
eject cdrom
mount -rt iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
umount /mnt/cdrom
eject cdrom
mount -rt iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
umount /mnt/cdrom
eject cdrom
mount -rF cdfs /dev/dsk/c1t6d0 /cdrom
start: /usr/sbin/pps_mountd
pps_mount
mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 /cdrom
umount /cdrom
mount/unmount CDROM
remount a filesystemn/amount -o remount,rw /mount -o remount,rw /mount_vxfs -o remount,ro <filesystem>mount -o remount,rw <filesystem>
Note:I did find a note that it should be possible to remount a jfs2 filesystem, but it did not work on my system
remount a filesystem
create boot disk or recovery tapen/amkbootdisk `uname -r` (boot diskette)n/arecovery tape (preview)
make_tape_recovery -v -l -x inc_entire=vg00
/opt/ignite/bin/make_recovery -ACv
mksysbcreate boot disk or recovery tape
boot cdrom/diskette (single user)ok> boot cdrom -susing the grub window append the word singleto the kernel lineusing the grub window append the word singleto the kernel lineenter PDC
> search
>boot p1 (cdrom)
interact with IPL? Y
ISL> hpux -is
based on a 9114-275 workstation
  1. Restart the machine.
  2. Wait the the AIX splash screen to come up. Devices begin to initialize here.
  3. When you see the [keyboard] word on screen hit the F5 button or the 5 key depending on your console.
  4. Choose “default boot list ” when the maintenance screen comes up.
boot cdrom/diskette (single user)
boot into maintenace modeok> boot -asf10 or f12f10 or f12>boot pri
interact with IPL? Y
ISL> hpux -lm
based on a 9114-275 workstation
  1. Restart the machine.
  2. Wait the the AIX splash screen to come up. Devices begin to initialize here.
  3. When you see the [keyboard] word on screen hit the F5 button or the 5 key depending on your console.
  4. Choose “select boot options ” when the maintenance screen comes up, then option 1, then option 1 for scsi, then option 3 service mode boot
boot into maintenace mode
Device pathsfloppy:disk:
/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0

tape:
/dev/rmt/0ucb

cdrom:
/dev/dsk/c0t6d0s0
/dev/scd0 (external usb cd)
floppy:
/dev/fd0
disk:
/dev/hda or /dev/sda
/dev/hdb or /dev/sdb
tape:
cdrom:
/dev/hda (depends on number of IDE disks)
floppy:
/dev/fd0
disk:
/dev/hda or /dev/sda
/dev/hdb or /dev/sdb
tape:
cdrom:
/dev/hda (depends on number of IDE disks)
floppy:
n/a
disk:
/dev/dsk/c0t6d0
tape:
/dev/dsk/rmt/0
cdrom:
/dev/dsk/c1t6d0
floppy:
/dev/fd0
/dev/rfd0
disk:
/dev/hdisk0
tape:
cdrom:
/dev/cd0
Device paths
update /dev directorydrvconfig
devlinks
disks|tapes|ports

devfsadm ( solaris 8, 9, 10)
/dev/MAKEDEV <device>/dev/MAKEDEV <device>insf -C tape (Class)
insf -H 0.1.0 -e (recreate deleted link)
cfgmgr
cfgmgr -l scsi0
mkdev
update /dev directory
remove or change a devicerem_drv  # remove all devices from a hardward path
rmsf -k -H 52.6.0
rmdev
rmdev -l cd0

chdev
chdev -l rmt0 -a ret=no
remove or change a device
list device driversprtconf -D
sysdef
cat /proc/devicescat /proc/deviceslsdevlsdev
lsdev -Cc disk
lsdev -Cc disk -p scsi0
lsslot -c pci -l ent0

lscfg
lscfg -l ent0
lscfg -vl fcs0 (find the WWN of HBA adapter)

lspath -l hdisk0

getconf DISK_SIZE hdisk1 (detailed)
list device drivers
Networking
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Basic network information
  (hostname, ip address)
/etc/hostname.hme0/etc/sysconfig/network
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
/etc/network/interfaces/etc/rc.config.d/netconfstores information in the ODM (Object Database Manager)Basic network information
  (hostname, ip address)
displaying network interfacesprtdiag -v
ifconfig -a

kstat hme:0
kstat e1000g:0
ifconfig
system-config-network (GUI)
ifconfigioscan -funC lan (list hardware)
lanscan -v (list configured)
ifconfig lan0 (individual)
ifconfig -a

entstat -d <interface>

lsdev -Cc if
lsdev -Cc tcpip

odmget -q "name=en0" CuAt

lsattr -EHl en0 
displaying network interfaces
Configure network interfaceifconfigifconfigifconfigifconfig <interface>mktcpip (completely setup a network interface)
rmtcpip (remove all network interfaces)
# configure an interface
mktcpip -h aix1 -a 192.168.1.200 -m 255.255.255.0 -i en1 -g 192.168.0.10

-h - hostname assigned to interface
-a - ip address
-m - netmask
-i - interface name
-g - gateway ip address
# remove an interface
ifconfig en1 detach

ifconfig (configures IP address)

chdev (add aliases to network interface)
Configure network interface
Starting and stopping a network interfaceifconfig qfe0 up
ifconfig qfe0 down
/sbin/ifup eth0
/sbin/ifdown eth0
/sbin/ifup eth0
/sbin/ifdown eth0
ifconfig lan0 up
ifconfig lan0 down
note: there is no "ifconfig -a" in hpux use lanscan then "ifconfig <interface>"
ifconfig en0 up
ifconfig en0 down
ifconfig en0 detach (remove)
Starting and stopping a network interface
Setting NIC speedndd -set <device> <parm> <value> (dynamically)
/etc/system (edit and update then reboot - permanent)
mii-tool -F 100baseTx-FD eth0
ethtool -s eth1 speed 100 duplex full
ethtool -s eth1 speed 100 duplex fullndd -set <device> <parm> <value>
lanadmin -X <option> lan0
chdev -l ent0 -a media_speed=1000_Full_Duplex -P
chdev -l ent0 -a media_speed=Auto_Negotiation -P

Note:
entX - physical device
enX - frame type run on entX
Setting NIC speed
Change NIC parametersndd -get <device> <parm>

# List parameters
ndd -get /dev/hme \?
ndd -get /dev/e1000g0 \?
ndd -get /dev/ip \?
ndd -get /dev/tcp \?
mii-tool -v
ethtool eth1
ethtool -t eth0 online

sysctl -a | grep net*
ethtool eth0

sysctl -a |grep net*
lanadmin -> lan -> display

## options supported
ndd -get /dev/ip ?
ndd -get /dev/tcp ?
ndd -get /dev/arp ?
ndd -get /dev/udp ?
netstat -v
entstat -d <interface>

no -a
no -o "ipforwarding=1"
NIC speeds or Parameters
Display NIC statistics   netstat -i [-I interface]
netstat -s
netstat -i [-f inet]
netstat -s
entstat -d <interface>
Display network statistics
display MAC addressifconfig -a (as user root)ifconfig
system-config-network (GUI)
ifconfiglanscannetstat -iadisplay MAC address
Displaying network packetssnoop -d <interface>tcpdump -i <interface>
ethereal (needs to be installed)
tcpdump -i <interface>
ethereal (needs to be installed)
nettl -start
nettl -status all
nettl -tn pduin pduout -e ns_ls_driver -file /var/adm/LAN
nettl -stop
use netfmt to display the trace file
tcpdump -i <interface>
iptrace -i <interface> <output file>
ipreport (used with iptrace to view reports)

Note: you must stop the iptrace by using "kill -15"
Displaying network packets
default router/etc/defaultrouter

route add default <gteway>
edit /etc/sysconfig/network
add: GATEWAY=<IP address>
edit /etc/network/interfaces

add: gateway <IP address>
/etc/rc.config.d/netconfroute add 0 <gateway IP address>

Note: there is no file that holds the default router
default router
display routing tablenetstat -rnnetstat -rn
route -n
netstat -rn
route -n
netstat -rnnetstat -rn
netstat -r -f inet
lsattr -EHl inet0 -a route
display routing table
Test IPMP, Bondingif_mpadm -d           (detach)
if_mpadm -r           (reattach)
tail /var/adm/messages
ifenslave -d bond0 eth1   (detach)
ifenslave bond0 eth1       (reattach)
cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
ifenslave -d bond0 eth1   (detach)
ifenslave bond0 eth1       (reattach)
cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
You buy an optional product called Auto-Port Aggragation.smitty etherchannel (creates, deletes and tests)

entstat -d ent0
Test IPMP, Bonding
change the hostnamechange the following files:
/etc/nodename
/etc/hostname.<interface>
/etc/inet/hosts
/etc/inet/ipnodes
/etc/net - few files in here as well
/etc/sysconfig/network
/etc/hosts

sysctl -a |grep hostname
/etc/hostname
/etc/hosts

sysctl -a |grep hostname
set_parms hostname (requires reboot)hostname <new hostname>
chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=<hostname>
change the hostname
setup DNS/etc/resolv.conf/etc/resolv.conf/etc/resolv.conf/etc/resolv.conf/etc/resolv.confsetup DNS
Name service switch file (DNS client)/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/host.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/host.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/netsvc.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/irs.conf (may not be there)

chnamsv     (change name service)
rmnamsv     (remove a name service)
lsnamsv -C   (list name services) 
Name service switch file (DNS client)
Flush DNS cachesvcadm restart system/name-service-cache:default## if installed
service nscd restart
 n/anetcdctrl -t dns -e hosts -fFlush DNS cache
Domain Name/etc/defaultdomain/etc/sysconfig/network  (HOSTNAME option)
/etc/resolv.conf

Note: for NIS use the NISDOMAIN option
/etc/host
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/rc.config.d/netconfdomainname <domainname>Domain Name
Obtain IP Address routingroute -n get <hostname>
traceroute
ip route get <IP address>
traceroute
ip route get <IP address>
traceroute
n/aroute -n get <hostname>Obtain IP Address routing
Find Services on the networkBoot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1
NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1
NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -b ypserv 1
Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1
NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1
NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -u <yp server> ypserv
Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1
NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1
NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -u <yp server> ypserv
Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1
NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1
NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -b ypserv 1
Boot (jumpstart) servers:
rpcinfo -b bootparam 1
NFS servers:
rpcinfo -b mountd 1
NIS servers/slaves:
rpcinfo -b ypserv 1
Find Services on the network
Crash Dump
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Crash Dumpdumpadm -d <device>
crash (used to analyse crash dumps)
adb (used to analyse crash dumps)
diskdump
netdump
kdump (part of kexec rpm)
/etc/kdump.conf (select where you want the dump to go)
service kdump start
chkconfig kdump on

## to crash the system
echo "c" > /proc/sysrq-trigger
crash (used to analyse crash dumps)
diskdump
netdump
kdump (part of kexec rpm)
/etc/kdump.conf (select where you want the dump to go)
service kdump start
chkconfig kdump on

## to crash the system
echo "c" > /proc/sysrq-trigger
crash (used to analyse crash dumps)
edit /stand/system
add either:
dump 2/0/1.5.0
dump lvol
dump none

# crash config file
/etc/rc.config.d/savecrash
sysdumpdev -l (list dump destination)
sysdumpdev -e (estimates dumpsize)
sysdumpdev -L (info)
sysdumpstart -p (start dump primary)
sysdumpstart -s (start dump secondary)

# set the dump device permanently
sysdumpdev -p <dump device> -P

# analyse dump file
echo "stat\n status\n t -m" | crash /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0
Crash Dump
Performance Monitoring and Diagnostics
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
CPUtop (sunfreeware)
prstat
sar
mpstat
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
top
sar
mpstat
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
procinfo
oprofile
cat /proc/cpuinfo
top
sar
mpstat
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
procinfo
cat /proc/cpuinfo
top
sar
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
ps
vmstat
glance
sam
topas -P
topas -L  (logical partitions)
mpstat
sar -c
w          (load average)
uptime   (load average)
lparstat
ps
iostat -tT 1
tprof
curt 
CPU
Memoryprstat
vmstat
top
sar
free
vmstat
top
procinfo
slabtop
sar
cat /proc/meminfo 
free
vmstat
top
procinfo
slabtop
sar
cat /proc/meminfo
top
vmstat
sar
sam
glance
topas
vmstat
sar -b
svmon
ps
ipcs -a
lockstat (version 4)
rmss 
Memory
Network I/Ondd
netstat
lsof
snoop
route
ethtool
mii-tool
netstat
lsof
tcpdump
ip
iptraf
ethtool
mii-tool
netstat
lsof
tcpdump
ip
iptraf
netstat
lanadmin
sam
glance 
[ent|tok|fddi|atm]stat
netstat
netpmon (trcstop to stop trace)
Network I/O
Disk I/Osar -d
iostat
vmstat
lsof
sar -d
iostat
vmstat
lsof
sar -d
iostat
vmstat
lsof
iostat
sar
sam
glance
topas -D   (disk)
topas -F   (filesystem)
iostat
sar -D
fcstat (fibre)
lvmstat
filemon (trcstop to stop)
fileplace

# disk stat history
chdev -l sys0 -a iostat=true
lsattr -HEl sys0 -a iostat
Disk I/O
Applicationtruss -p <pid>strace -p <pid>strace -p <pid>download and install tusctusc -p <pid>topas
truss
sar
probevue
tprof
svmon -P <pid>
Application
NFSnfsstatnfsstatnfsstatnfsstatnfsstat
NFS
Kernel Modules and Parameters
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display loaded modulesmodinfocat /proc/modules (more detailed)
lsmodLocation:
/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers

Config:
/etc/modprobe.conf
/etc/modprobe.d
cat /proc/modules (more detailed)
lsmodLocation:
/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers

Config:
/etc/modprobe.d/options
/etc/modprobe.d
kmadmin -k genkexdisplay loaded modules
load modulesmodload -p drv/<module name> modprobe <module>
insmod
modprobe <module>
insmod
kmadmin -L <module name>n/aload modules
unload modulesmodunload -i <module number>modprobe -r <module>
rmmod
modprobe -r <module>
rmmod
kmadmin -U <module name>
kmadmin -u <module id>
n/aunload modules
set kernel parameters (tuning)/etc/system (edit and reboot)/etc/sysctl.conf (edit and update then reboot)
sysctl -p <filename>sysctl -w param=value

No reboot (dynamically):
echo "250 32000 100 28" > /proc/sys/kernel/sem
echo "536870912" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
echo "4096" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
echo "2097152" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
etc.............................................
/etc/sysctl.conf (edit and update then reboot)
sysctl -p <filename>sysctl -w param=value

No reboot (dynamically):
echo "250 32000 100 28" > /proc/sys/kernel/sem
echo "536870912" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
echo "4096" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
echo "2097152" > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall
etc.............................................
kcweb (11i)
kctune (11i only)
rebuild kernel (< 11i see below)
chdev -l sys0 -a <parameter>=<value>
no -a          (network)
vmo -a        (virtual memory)
nfso -a        (NFS)
ioo -a         (Input/Ouput)
raso -a        (reliability, availability, serviceability)
schedo -a   (processor scheduler)

vi /etc/security/limits
cd /etc/tunables
tunchange, tundefault, tunsave, tunrestore, tuncheck

Note: most parameters are dynamically changed in AIX , for example memory segments are dynamically adjusted
set kernel parameters
display kernel parameterscat /etc/system
sysdef -i
sysctl -a
cat /etc/sysctl.conf

cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem
cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
etc...................................
sysctl -a
cat /etc/sysctl.conf

cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem
cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
etc...................................
kctune (11i only)
sysdef
kmtune
kmsystem
/usr/sam/lbin/getkinfo -f /stand/vmunix -o /tmp/kernel.data
lsattr -EHl sys0

Note: only a few kernel parameters can be changed
display kernel parameters
build kerneledit and update file then reboot:
/etc/system
cd /usr/src/linux-2.5
edit Makefile (change EXTRAVERSION)
make mrproper
backup .config
make xconfig
make dep
make bzImage
make modules
move new kernel
make modules_install
change lilo/grub config file
reboot
 cd /stand/build
/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep -v -s system
edit system file
/usr/sbin/mk_kernel -s ./system
mv /stand/system /stand/system.old
mv /stand/vmunix /stand/vmunix.old
mv /stand/build/system /stand
mv /stand/build/vmunix_test /stand/vmunix
reboot
chdev -l sys0 -a <parameter>=<value>

Note: most parameters are dynamically changed in AIX , for example memory segments are dynamically adjusted
build kernel
interprocess communicationipcs -aipcs -aipcs -aipcs -aipcs -ainterprocess communication
Services
 
Solaris 10
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display servicessvcs -a
inetadm -l
service --status-allThere is no services or chkconfig command use the old fashioned way /etc/init.d/<service>There is no services or chkconfig command
use the old fashioned way /sbin/init.d/<service>
lssrc -adisplay services
start servicessvcadm enable nfsservice nfs startstartsrc -s <subsystem>
startsrc -g <group>
start services
stop servicessvcadm disable nfsservice nfs stopstopsrc -s <subsystem>
stopsrc -g <group>
stop services
reload servicesvcadm refresh nfsservice nfs reloadrefresh -s <subsystem>reload service
restart servicesvcadm restart nfsservice nfs restartstopsrc -s <subsystem>
startsrc -s <subsystem>
restart service
service statussvcs nfsservice nfs stauslssrc -aservice status
service dependenciessvcs -d networkn/an/aservice dependencies
service dependantssvcs -D networkn/an/aservice dependants
service logging, etc/var/svc/log
/var/svc/manifest
/lib/svc/method
n/a/var/adm/ras
/etc/syslog.conf
/etc/rc.tcpip
service logging, etc
change service startupn/achkconfig --levels 2345 nfs onn/achange service startup
Add a new servicen/a# Create your stop/start
# script in /etc/init.d

chkconfig --add <script>
  
Patching / Software
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display installed patchesshowrev -p
patchadd -p
  swlist -l bundle
swlist -l product
swlist -l patch
instfix -iadisplay installed patches
adding patchpatchadd
patchadd -M <dir> (multiple patches)
patch -p1 <patch>

zcat patch46.gz | patch -p1

Note: -p = # of path stripping
 
swcopy (install patch into depot)
swinstall (install patch from depot)
Note: the swagentd daemon must be running
instfix -kadding patch
removing patchpatchrmpatch -R -p1 <patch> swremoveinstallp -rremoving patch
display installed packagespkginfo (all packages)
pkginfo -l (single package)
pkgchk -l -p <file> (file belongs)
rpm -qa (all packages)
rpm -q (single package)
rpm -qf (file belongs)
rpm -qi <package> (very detailed)
dpkg -l
dpkg -S <search string> (search)
dpkg -S <filename> (file belongs)
dpkg -s <package> (status)
dpkg -p <package> (detailed) 
swlist -l bundle <bundle>
swlist -l product <product>

## check a package
swlist -s <full_path/software>
lslpp -L all (all filesets)
lslpp -L <package> (single fileset)
lslpp -w <file> (file belongs)
lslpp -ha (history of filesets)
rpm -qa (all packages)
rpm -q (single package)
rpm -qf (file belongs)
rpm -qi <package> (very detailed)

oslevel -g (install packkages above os level)

whereis <filename>
which_fileset <filename>
display installed packages
adding packagepkgaddrpm -Uhv (updates/installs if not already)
rpm -ihv (install)
dpkg -i <package>swinstall
swinstall -s <full_path/software>
installp -a
installp -c (cleanup after failed install)
rpm -i
geninstall (generic installer: installp, RPM, etc)
adding package
removing packagespkgrmrpm -e <package>dpkg -r <package> (do not remove config files)
dpkg -P <package> (remove config files)
swremoveinstallp -u (commited packages)
installp -r (applied packages)

rpm -e <package>
geninstall -u <package>
removing packages
verify packagepkginfo -l
pkginfo -p
rpm -V <package>n/aswverity <fileset> (see /var/adm/sw/swagent.log)lppchk -v

rpm -V <package>
verify package
List files in packagepkgchk -l <package> | grep -i pathnamerpm -ql <package>dpkg -L <package> (list files)swlist -l file <product>lslpp -f <fileset>
rpm -ql <package>
List files in package
Package directory/var/sadm/var/lib/rpm/var/lib/dpkg/info/var/adm/sw/usr/lpp
/var/lib/rpm
Package directory
List libraries required for binary programldd <file>ldd <file>ldd <file>chatr <file>ldd <file>List libraries required for binary program
Accounts
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
display userscat /etc/passwd

logins -x
cat /etc/passwd
system-config-users (GUI)
cat /etc/passwdcat /etc/passwd
logins -x
cat /etc/passwd

lsuser -f ALL   (detailed)
display users
create a useruseradduseradd
system-config-users (GUI)
useradduseradd
sam
mkuser
useradd
create a user
remove a useruserdeluserdel
system-config-users (GUI)
userdeluserdel
sam
rmuser
userdel
remove a user
modify a userusermodusermod
system-config-users (GUI)
usermodusermod
sam
chuser -a
usermod
passwd -f
passwd -s
chfn <username>
chfn <username><shell>
modify a user
change user passwordpasswdpasswdpasswdpasswdpasswd
pwdadm
pwdck -t ALL
change user password
create a groupgroupaddgroupaddgroupaddgroupaddmkgroup <group name>create a group
remove a groupgroupdelgroupdelgroupdelgroupdelrmgroup <group name>remove a group
modify a goupgroupmodgroupmodgroupmodgroupmodchgroup <attribute><group name>modify a goup
password files/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/passwd
/tcb/files/auth/r/root (trusted system)
/etc/security/passwdpassword files
useful user commandsid -a
whoami
who
w
finger
id -a
whoami
who
w
finger
id -a
whoami
who
w
finger
id
whoami
who
w
uptime (displays # of users logged in)
finger
id
whoami
who
w
uptime (displays # of users logged in)
finger

# License information
lslicense
chlicense

# Maximum number of processes for a user
lsattr -D -l sys0 -a maxuproc
chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=<number>
useful user commands
useful group commandsgroups
setpgrp
newgrp
groupsgroupsgroups
setprivgrp
groups
setgroups
lsgroup ALL
useful group commands
NFS
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
NFS Daemonsserver: mountd, nfsd
client: statd, lockd
server: rpc.mountd,nfsd
client: rpc.statd, lockd
server: rpc.mountd,nfsd
client: rpc.statd, lockd
server: rpc.mountd, nfsd
client: rpc.statd, lockd
server: rpc.mountd, nfsd
client: rpc.statd, rpc.lockd
NFS Daemons
NFS files/etc/dfs/dfstab
/etc/dfs/sharetab
/etc/rmtab
/etc/exports
/var/lib/nfs/etab
/var/lib/nfs/xtab
/etc/exports
/var/lib/nfs/etab
/var/lib/nfs/xtab
/etc/exports
/etc/xtab
/etc/exports
/etc/xtab
NFS files
List nfs clients that have a remote mount/etc/rmtab/var/lib/nfs/rmtab/var/lib/nfs/rmtab/etc/rmtab/etc/xtabList nfs clients that have a remote mount
display nfs sharesdfshares
showmount -e localhost
showmount -e localhostshowmount -e localhostshowmount -e localhostexportfs
showmount -e localhost
display nfs shares
create nfs share/etc/dfs/dfstab (edit and add share)
share <path>

## dfstab example
share -F nfs -d "jumpstart" /export/jumpstart
redhat-config-nfs (GUI)

/etc/exports (edit and add share)
/sbin/service nfs reload

## /etc/exports example
/export *(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_root_squash,sync)
/etc/exports (edit and add share, see below example)
exportfs -rav (export the shares)

/etc/init.d/portmap restart
/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server restart

## /etc/exports example
/export *(rw,fsid=0,insecure,no_root_squash,sync) 
/etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf (edit)
/etc/exports (edit and add share)
exportfs -a
mknfsexp -d <directory>
mknfsmnt

shareall
create nfs share
uncreate nfs shareunshare <path>
/etc/dfs/dfstab (edit and remove share) 
/etc/exports (edit and remove share)
/sbin/service nfs reload
/etc/exports (edit and remove share)
exportfs -rav (export the shares) 
/etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf (edit)
exportfs -au (unshare all)
exportfs -u /home/vallep
/etc/exports (edit and remove share)
rmnfsexp  -d <directory> (unshares and removes from file)

exportfs -u <filesystem>
unshareall
uncreate nfs share
start/change nfs daemons/etc/init.d/nfs.server start
/etc/init.d/nfs.client start
svcadm enable nfs/server
svcadm disable nfs/server
/sbin/service nfs start/etc/init.d/portmap start
/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.core start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.server start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.client start
mknfs
chnfs

startsrc -s nfsd
startsrc -s rpc.mountd
start/change nfs daemons
stop nfs daemons/etc/init.d/nfs.server stop
/etc/init.d/nfs.client stop
/sbin/service nfs stop/etc/init.d/portmap stop
/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.client stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.server stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.core stop
rmnfs

stopsrc -s nfsd
stopsrc -s rpc.mountd
stop nfs daemons
nfs statusps -ef|grep < nfs daemons>/sbin/service nfs status/etc/init.d/nfs-kernel-server statusps -ef | grep <nfs daemons>lssrc -a |grep -i nfsnfs status
nfs reloadshareall/sbin/service nfs reloadexportfs -rav (export the shares)exportfs -aexportfs -avnfs reload
nfs performanacenfsstatnfsstatnfsstatnfsstatnfsstatnfs performanace
nfs Optionsn/acat /var/lib/nfs/etabcat /var/lib/nfs/etabn/anfso -a
nfso -o <option>=<value>

exportfs (display options)
nfs Options
solaris/redhat mount problems (nfs v3 to v4)## Make sure you use NFS version 3
mount -F nfs -o vers=3 <mount> <mountpoint>
n/an/an/an/asolaris/redhat mount problems (nfs v3 to v4)
NTP
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Time daemonsxntpdntpdntpdxntpdxntpdTime daemons
ntp setup# Solaris 8
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/ntp.server
/etc/ntp.client
/etc/rc2.d/xntpd [start|stop]
# Solaris 10
/etc/inet/ntp.server
/etc/inet/ntp.client

svcadm enable ntpd
/etc/ntp.conf (edit with ntp servers)
dateconfig (GUI)
chkconfig --list ntpd
chkconfig --level 2345 ntpd on
/sbin/service ntpd start
/etc/default/ntp
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/init.d/ntp [start|stop|restart]
/etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons (set XNTPD to 1)
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/ntp.conf
startsrc -s xntpd
stopsrc -s xntpd

lslpp -L all|grep xntpd
ntp setup
ntp daemon options/lib/svc/method/xntp/etc/sysconfig/ntpd/etc/default/ntp/etc/rc.config.d/netdaemonsstartsrc -s xntpd -a "-x"
/etc/rc.tcpip
ntp daemon options
NTP Trace commandsntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpq -p
ntpdate (set the date)
ntpq -p
ntptrace
ntpdate
NTP Trace commands
Log Files
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
messages/var/adm/messages/var/log/messages/var/log/messages/var/adm/syslog/syslog.log/var/adm/ras
messages
syslog/var/log/syslog/var/log/syslog/var/log/syslog/var/adm/syslog/syslog.log/var/adm/ras
syslog
mail /var/log/mail/var/log/mail.*/var/adm/syslog/mail.log/usr/spool/mqueue/syslog
mail
cron/var/cron/log/var/log/cron/var/log/cron.log/var/adm/cron/log/var/adm/cron/log
cron
boot/var/adm/messages
dmesg
/var/log/boot
dmesg
/var/log/boot
dmesg
/var/adm/syslog/syslog.log
dmesg
/var/adm/ras

alog -o -t boot
alog -o -t console
alog -L  (list all the logs available)
boot
Error loggingloggerloggerloggerlogger/usr/lib/errdemon -l (display attributes)
/usr/lib/errdemon (start error logging)
/usr/lib/errstop (stop error logging)
# use with above errorlog file
errpt (summary errorlog report)
errpt -a (detailed errorlog report)
errpt -j <identifier> (single errorlog report)

errclear (clears errorlog)
errclear -d <class><days> (clears class errors)

errlogger "message upto 230 chars"
Error logging
Security
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
Checking the passwd filepwckpwckpwckpwckpwdck -t ALL
usrck -t ALL
Checking the passwd file
checking the group filegrpckgrpckgrpckgrpckgrpckchecking the group file
console login (allow/deny)# No reboot required
/etc/default/login
# No reboot required
/etc/securetty
# No reboot required
/etc/securetty
# No reboot required
/etc/securetty

Note: you may need to create this file if it does not exist
# No reboot required
/etc/security/user

chsec -f /etc/security/user -s root
console login (allow/deny)
Misc
 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
 
startupeeprom
setenv boot-device
grub (GUI)
lilo (text based)
grub (GUI)setboot -p <primary path>
setboot -a <alternate path>

# autoboot sequnce
setboot -b [on|off]
bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1startup
shutdownshutdown -i5 -g0 -y (power down)
shutdown -i6 -g0 -y (reboot)
shutdown -i0 -g0 -y (OK prompt)
reboot -- -r (reboot/reconfigure)

touch /reconfigure
shutdown -h (halt)
shutdown -r (reboot)
shutdown -f (fast reboot no fsck)
shutdown -F (force fsck)
shutdown -h (halt)
shutdown -r (reboot)
shutdown -P (power off)
touch /forcefsck
# edit /etc/default/rcS change below so
# you dont have to hang around
FSCKFIX=yes
shutdown -h now (halt)
shutdown -r now(reboot)
shutdown -F (fast shutdown)
shutdown -Fr (fast shutdown and reboot)
shutdown
Change run levelhalt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
uadmin
halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
init
reboot
shutdown
init
shutdown
reboot
telinit
halt
Change run level
init status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0 - shutdown
1 - single user
2 - n/a
3 - Multi-user
4 - n/a
5 - power off
6 - reboot

# change default
vi /etc/inittab

0 - halt
1 - single user
2 - multiuser (no networking)
3 - multiuser (networking)
4 - unused
5 - GUI
6 - reboot

# change default
vi /etc/inittab

0 - halt
1 - single user
2 - multiuser (default)
3 - same as 2
4 - same as 2
5 - same as 2
6 - reboot



# change default - change all the telinit
vi /etc/event.d/rc-default

0 - halt
1 - single users
2 - multiuser (networking)
3 - multiuser (networking, NFS, and CDE GUI) (default)
4 - multiuser (netwrking, NFS, and VUE GUI)
5 - n/a
6 - n/a

# change default - change the initdefault line
vi /etc/inittab

0 - reserved
1 - reserved
2 - multiuser mode with NFS
3 - user defined
4 - user defined
5 - user defined
6 - user defined
7-9 - user defined
# change default - change the initdefault line
vi /etc/inittab
init status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Startup options-s single user
-a interactive
-x no device drivers (used in clustering)
-r reconfigure devices
-m milestone
single  - use grub to edit kernel line
emergency - use grub to edit kernel line
linux rescue - use at the boot prompt
single: runlevel1, local fs mounted, no network
emergency: root fs read-only, no init files run
rescue: use cd-rom/network, root mounted as /mnt/sysimage
single  - use grub to edit kernel line
emergency - use grub to edit kernel line
linux rescue - use at the boot prompt
single: runlevel1, local fs mounted, no network
emergency: root fs read-only, no init files run
rescue: use cd-rom/network, root mounted as /mnt/sysimage
interact with IPL? Y

# single user
ISL> hpux -is
# Logical volume maintanence mode
ISL> hpux -lm

# No quroum check
ISL> hpux -lq
Based on 9114-275 workstation
1. switch off the machine

2. power on and enter the SMS menu

Note: to enter the SMS menu press numeric 1 after the word keyboard but before the word speaker 

Startup options
startup scripts/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/sbin/init.d
/etc/rc.config.d (startup config files)

/sbin/rc0.d - /sbin/rc6.d
/etc/rc.d
/etc/rc.d/init.d

/etc/rc.d/rc2.d - rc9.d

/etc/rc.* (config files for auto-starting)
also uses the System Resource Controller
startup scripts
boot prompt commandsboot
printenv
setenv
banner
devalias
show-devs
show-pci-devs-all
probe-scsi-all
probe-fcal-all
probe-pci
watch-net-all
reset-all
F10 or F12F10 or F12interact with IPL? YBased on a 9114-275 workstation
1. switch off the machine

2. power on and enter the SMS menu

Note: to enter the SMS menu press numeric 1 after the word keyboard but before the word speaker
boot prompt commands
Boot processPhases:
  • Boot PROM: displays system information, run POST, load bootblk, locate ufsboot
  • Boot Programs: bootblk loads and executes the ufsboot
  • Kernel Initialization: ufsboot loads and executes the core kernel, initializes core kernel data structures, loads other kernel modules based on the/etc/system file, starts/sbin/init program
  • init: starts other processes based on the /etc/inittab file
Boot sequence
  1. BIOS
  2. POST
  3. Master Boot Record (MBR) - point to the bootloader GRUB or LILO
  4. GRUB (stage 1) - point to GRUB stage 1_5
  5. GRUB (stage 1_5) - deals with specific filesystem types look at /boot/grub/*1_5 files
  6. GRUB (stage 2) – reads /etc/grub.conf and displays the grub menu, it specifies the kernel and the initrd files
  7. KERNEL - control given to the kernel
  8. INIT - reads /etc/inittab and runs /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script
Boot sequence
  1. BIOS
  2. POST
  3. Master Boot Record (MBR) - point to the bootloader GRUB or LILO
  4. GRUB (stage 1) - point to GRUB stage 1_5
  5. GRUB (stage 1_5) - deals with specific filesystem types look at /boot/grub/*1_5 files
  6. GRUB (stage 2) – reads /boot/grub/menu.lst and displays the grub menu, it specifies the kernel and the initrd files
  7. KERNEL - control given to the kernel
  8. INIT - runs the /etc/event.d/rc-default script
Phases:
  1. PDC - processor-dependent code; executes and performs self-tests
  2. ISL - initial system loader; loads the secondary system loader hpux
  3. HPUX - is the secondary system loader and loads the kernel /stand/vmunix, then hands over to the kernel
  4. KERNEL - swapper processes are started by the kernel then starts the init process
  5. INIT - reads /etc/inittab
Phases:
  • Read Only Storage (ROS): check the system board, perform POST, locate and load boot image, begin system initialization and execute phase 1 of the /etc/rc.boot script
  • Base Device Configuration: start configuration manager to configue base devices
  • System Boot: start init process phase 2, switch to hard-disk root filesystem, start other processes defined by /etc/inittab and execute phase 3 of the /etc/rc.boot script
Boot process
determine the run levelwho -rrunlevel
who -r
runlevel
who -r
who -rwho -rdetermine the run level
obtain default run levelcat /etc/inittabcat /etc/inittab/etc/event.d/rc-default/etc/inittab/etc/inittabobtain default run level
list localelocale -alocale -alocale -alocale -alocale -alist locale
start xwindowsn/astartx (shorthand of below)
initx (lots of parms)
 n/an/astart xwindows
initialize systemsys-unconfig  set_parms [initial|hostname|ip_address|timezone]

Note: set_parms is in /sbin
install_assistinitialize system
Timezone/etc/TIMEZONE
/etc/default/init
/etc/sysconfig/clock
/usr/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
/etc/timezone
/usr/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
/etc/TIMEZONE/etc/environment
/etc/profile
Timezone



Courtesy by datadisk.co.uk

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